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The Delhi Sultan or Sultanate Period (1206-1526)

 Mohammad Ghori conquests became the Nucleus of a new political entity in India- "The Delhi Sultanate"

This period can be divided into 5 distinct Period viz:

Slave Dynasty (1206-1290) - 84 years 

Khilji Dynasty (1290-1320) - 30 years -Shortest 

Tughlaq Dynasty (1320-1526) - 94 years- Longest 

Lodhi Dynasty (1541-1526) - 75 years 

**All the Dynasty slave / Khilji / Sayyid  are from Turkey (Turkish), Only Lodhi Dynasty from Afganisthan.

 Background of Delhi Sultan:

  • 1st Muslim invasion: ( Capture, Attack, Raid and Takeover )
  • Mohammad Bin Qasim attack India in 712 AD and capture Sindh, which becomes the provinces of Omayyad Khilafat.
1st Turkey Invasion (Attack)
Mohammad of Ghazni ( 998 to 1030 AD )

  • In 998 AD, the Turkish conqueror, Mohammad Ghazni succeeded his father and established a huge empire in Central Asia.
  • He made 'GHAZNI' as his Capital, the present day Ghazni is South Kabul.
  • He was 27 years old, the first ruler to get the title of SULTAN which means Authority.
  • He attack India 17 times during the period between 1000 and 1027 AD.
Reason Behind Invasion to India by Ghazni :

  1. To accumlate vast amount of wealth that existed in India.
  2. Spread Islam.
  3. Strength his Kingdom in Central Asia.
  4. Rajput lack of unity and were not organised.
  5. Rajput Kingdom was small and scattered.
Ghazni Invasion to India from 1000 to 1027 AD :

  1. 1000 AD - Modern Afghanistan and Pakistan.
  2. 1005 - Bhatia
  3. 1006 AD - Multan
  4. 1007 AD - Bhatinda ( Punjab )
  5. 1011 AD - Punjab Hills
  6. 1013 AD - Pakistan and Afganisthan
  7. 1014 AD - Thanesar
  8. 1018 AD- Kashmir
  9. 1018 AD - Mathura ( U.P )
  10. 1021 AD - Kannauj ( U.P )
  11. 1023 AD- Gwaloir
  12. 1027 AD- Last invasion of Mohammad Ghazni, He attack the "SOMENATH TEMPLE" ( SHIV temple in Gujrat )
  • The brave Hindhu Rajput tried to defend the temple when enemy tried to get inside the temple.
  • The Hindus fought very bravely and initially the enemies could not damage the temple
  • However after 3 days fought, Mohammad Ghazni's troops were successful in plundering the SOMENATH TEMPLE, in which the sacred idol LINGA was destroyed.
  • Ghazni looted all the treasures of the temple which was at that time worth 20 million Dinars ( Morethen 8 times of what he had collected in his first invasion )
  • Around 5000 Hindus died during the last invasion ( Hindu hated Ghazni). In each invasion of any Indian Dynasty he carried back vast wealth with him.
  • Though his invasion did not show any systematic effeot to conquer the sun-continent, it lead to the foundation of Turkish Rule in India and his conquest opened the gates of Indian to be conquered from North-West.
  • He was considered a GREAT ISLAMIC HERO
  • With Ghazni invasion the economy condition of India weakened.
  • Affected the future Political scenario of the Country.
  • Huge setback to Indian Architecture and Sculpture due to demolition of idols and Temples.
  • Islam also gained a major foothold in India after the attack.
  • Ghazni conquests specially the inclusion of Punjab and Afghanistan in his Kingdom made the Indian frontiers week. This made easier for other Afghan and Turkish rulers to enter India into the Gangetic valley at any time.
2nd Turk Invasion 
Mohammad Ghori's Invasion (1175-1206 )

  • Mohammad Ghori invaded India and laid the foundation of 'MUSLIM DOMINATION' in India.
  • He may be consider the  "FOUNDER OF MUSLIM RULE" in India.
  • 1191 AD - 1st battle of TARAIN (Haryana)
Fought between : Mohammad Ghori and Prithviraj Chauhan.

RESULT : Prithviraj Chauhan defeated Mohammad Ghori.

  • 1192 AD - 2nd battle of TARAIN (Haryana) :
Fought between : Mohammad Ghori and Prithviraj Chauhan.

RESULT : Mohammad Ghori defeated Pritviraj Chauhan ( Capture and later on slain ).

  • After the battle - The kingdom of Delhi fell to Mohammad Ghori.
  • The battle of TARAIN had great significance in the Political scene as it led to the establishment of 'MUSLIM RULE' over North India and subsequently in the South for several centuries.
Reason for the Success of Turks in India :

  1. Rajput lacked unity and organisation.
  2. No central Government.
  3. Small and scattered kingdom.
  4. The Turks were better organised and took advantages of the lack of motual co-operation among the Rajputas.

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