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TUGHLAQ DYNASTY

 TUGHLAQ DYNASTY ( 1320-1414 AD )

1. Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq ( 1320-1325 AD ) - 5 years

2. Mohammad Bin Tughlaq ( 1325-1352 AD ) - 26 years

3. Firoz Shah Tughlaq ( 1352-1388 AD ) - 37 years- Longest ruler of Tughlaq Dynasty.

4. After Firoz Shah Tughlaq  ( 1388-1414 AD )- 26 years

GHIYASUDDIN TUGHLAQ ( 1320-1325 AD ) - 5 years

  • Ghazi Malik killed the last ruler of Khilji Dynasty, Khusran Khan ( Mubarak Hassain )
  • 1320 - Ghazi Malik- assented the throne assuming the title "GHIYASUDDIN TUGHLAQ"
  • Mostly work on irrigation
  • Build "TUGHLAQABAD FORT" ( Delhi )
  • He fell down from that Fort and died in 1325.
  • Some belief that Mohammad-bin-Tughlaq push his father from this Fort.
MOHAMMAD-BIN-TUGHLAQ ( 1325-1352 AD ) - 26 years

1. 1325 son of Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq named JUNA ( ULUGH KHAN ) come to the throne of Delhi.

2. He tried to introduce many administrative reforms.

3. He has 5 ambitious project from which he become particularly debatable :-

  • 1326 - Taxation of Doab
  • 1327 - Transfer of Capital -Delhi to Doulatabad (Devgiri)
  • 1329 - Introduction of Token Currency
  • 1329 - Proposed Khurasah ( Iraq ) Expedition.
  • 1330 - Qarachil Expedition
4. The Sultan create a new Agriculture department  called "Diwan-i-Kohi"

  • House Tax  ( Ghari )
  • Pasture Tax ( Gharahi )
5. Increase the tax on DOAB REGION ( Ganga and Jamuna region )

6. His 5 project led to revolt. His last day spent in defend the revolts although 30 revolt in 25 years.

6. He died in THATTA, while campainging in SINDH against TAGHI (Turkish Slave )


FIROZ SHAH TUGHLAQ ( 1351-1388 AD ) - 37 years

1. He was the cousin of Mohammad Bin Tughlaq. After his death the Nobles and theologians of the court selected FIROZ SAHA as the next Sultan.

2. He was the great Builders.

3. He created 300 cities and towns like :-

  • Firoz Saha Kotla City ( Delhi )
  • Firoz Saha Kotla Fort ( Delhi )- Now becomes Arun Jetly Stadium.
  • Hisar ( Haryana )
  • Fatehabad ( Haryana )
  • Firozabad, Firozpur, Jaunpur ( U.P )
4. Sultan established a HOSPITAL in Delhi and describe as "Dar-Ul-Shifa" ( Charity Hospital )

5. A new department was created known "Diwan-i-Khairat" to make provision for the marriage of poor girls.

6. " Diwan-i-Bangadan" - Employment Bureau

7. "Diwan-i-Istikaka" - Old age pension

8. Established 5 canals- Longest canal - Saltuj to Hosi ( Mayanmar / Burma )

9. Increase 10% irrigation tax. Started a new system of Taxation according to QURAN. These taxes are :-

  • Jizya ( Started by Qutubuddin Aibak but not include Brahmins, Children and women ) - Non-Muslim tax ( Religion Tax) Brahmins also include women and children.
  • ZAKAT - 2% Tax on Property
  • Kharaj - Land tax which was equal to 1/10 of the produce of the land.
  • Khams - 1/5 of the booty capture during war. 1/5 to sultan, 4/5 to soldiers but during Allauddin Khilji it was opposite 1/5 to soldiers and 4/5 to Sultan.
MOHAMMAD-BIN-TUGHLAQ- Policy affected to Administration :-

  • He check the Revolt and try to please the Nobel's.
  • He focus on those areas which could be easily administered from Center.
  • He therefore no attempt to Re-assent his authority over south India and Deccan.
  • He declared that whenever a noble died his son should be allow to succeed to his opposition including his Iqta if, he had no son then his son-in-law and his absent his slave was to be succeeded.
  • Firoz extended his principle of Heredity to the Army. Soldiers were allowed to rest in peace and send their place their son.
  • The soldiers were not paid in cash but by assignments on land revenue of village ( VAJEHA )
  • This noble technique of payment led the many abuse.
  • He prohibited the practice of Non-Muslim women going to worship at Graves of Saint. ( He consider it was not Islamic )
  • The two pillars of ASHOKA one from TOPRA ( HARYANA ) and other from MEERUT ( U.P ) were brought to Delhi.
  • He died in 1388.
  • His ruled was marked by peace and tranquility and credit for it goes to Prime Minister Khan-i-Jahan Maqbal.
  • He order his officials that, whenever they attacked a place they should select Handeome and well young boys and send them to sultan or slave.
  • In his time most Slave department ( 1,80,000 slaves)- Most slave store.
 AFTER FIROZ SHAH TUGHLAQ ( 1388- 1414 AD )

  • The Tughlaq dynasty could not survive much after Firoz Saha Tughlaq.
  • The MALWA, GUJRAT, JAUNPUR Kingdom broke away from the Sultan.
TAIMUR'S INVASION ( 1398-99 AD ) :

  • A Turkish chief and cruel conqueror from MONGOLIA and descendant of CHENGIZ KHAN invaded India in 1398 during the reign of MOHAMMAD SAHA TUGHLAQ the last ruler of Tughlaq Dynasty.
  • TAIMUR'S Army mercilessly sacked and plundered DELHI.
  • TAIMUR return to central Asia leaving a nominee named KHIZIR KHAN to ruled the Punjab.
  • In 1404 he died while on his way to China.
  •  KHIZIR KHAN - Capture Delhi and Was proclaimed the New Sultan. He was the 1st ruler of SAYYID DYNASTY.

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