Nobel Prize


The Nobel Prizes in Physics, Chemistry, Medicine, Literature and Peace have been awarded since 1901, and the Nobel Prize in Economics since 1969. The Nobel Prize is awarded to those person who will give the highest and best gift to the human society of the world in international relations, the abolition of the army and the establishment of world peace.

Applications were submitted till 12 midnight on January 31. Since March, the Nobel Committee has been shortlisting each case. The Nobel Prize is announced in October and is awarded to the recipients on the death anniversary of Alfred Nobel on December 10 each year. Alfred Nobel was a Swedish physicist, chemist, discoverer of dynamite, engineer, businessman, pacifist and noted author. On November 26, 1895, he donated 94 percent of his total assets, about 31 million Swedish krona, to the Nobel Prize fund.

Nobel laureates selected -
(1) 'The Royal Swedish Academy' of Physics and Chemistry from Stockholm, Sweden.
(2) Sweden's 'Sveriges Riksbank' in the economy.
(3) 'Karolinska Institute' in the Department of Medicine.
(4) 'Swedish Academy' in literature.
(5) The Norwegian Nobel Committee on Peace.

What is given in the Nobel Prize

The Nobel Prize was awarded 10 million Swedish krona. In addition to the monetary value, the Nobel laureates were awarded a diploma, a 24 carat gold plated 18 carat gold medal.

More than one Nobel laureate :

✔ Marie Curie Skadovsk (France, civic source); Physics (1903), Chemistry (1911)
✔ Louis Carl Pauling (United States); Chemistry (1954), Peace (1982)
✔ John Bardin (United States); Physics (1958 and 1962)
✔ Frederick Sanger (England); Chemistry (1958 and 1970)
✔ The International Committee of the Red Cross has won the Nobel Peace Prize three times, in 1917, 1944 and 1973, respectively.
✔ UNHCR has twice won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1954 and 1971

Nobel laureate couple :

✔ Pierre Curie and Madame Marie Curie (France); Physics (1903)
✔ Frederick Joliet and Irene Joliet Curie (France): Chemistry (1935)
✔ Carl Ferdinand Curie and Gerty Theresa Cori (United States): Medicine (1947)
✔ Swedish couple Gunnar Myrdal - Economics (1974) and Alva Myrdal - Peace (1972)
✔ Edvard Moser and May - Britt Moser (Norway): Medical Science (2014)
✔ Abhijit Vinayak Banerjee (India) and Esther Duflo (France) - Economics-2019

Nobel laureate father - son :

✔ Sir William Bragg and Sir Lawrence Bragg (England); Physics (1915)
✔ Denmark - Niels Henrik Bohr, Physics (1922) and Agass Niels Bohr, Physics (1975)
✔ Hans von Euler Chelpin of Sweden - Chemistry (1929) and Wolf von Euler - Medicine (1970)
✔ Arthur Kornberg of the United States - Medicine (1959) and Roger D. Kornberg - Chemistry (2006).
✔ Sweden's Karl Manne Georg Siegbahn - Physics (1924) and Kai Siegbahn - Physics (1981)
✔ J. J. Thomson of Britain - Physics (1906) and G. P. Thomson - Physics (1937)

Nobel laureate mother and daughter :

Marie Curie (France), Physics (1903) and Irene Jaliot Curie (France), Chemistry (1935)

Nobel laureate Two brothers :

John Tinbergen of the Netherlands - Economics (1969) and Nicholas Tinbergen - Medicine (1973)

Posthumous Nobel :

✔ Sweden's Dag Hammarskjöld - Peace (1961)
✔ Sweden's Erik Axel Karlfeldt - Literature (1931)
✔ Canadian Ralph M. Steinman - Medicine (2011)

First Nobel laureate in economics (1969) :

Ragnar Frisch (Norway) and Jan Tinbergen (Netherlands)

World's first Nobel laureate (1901) :

Wilhelm Röntgen (German) Physics
Sully Prudhomme (French) Literature
Emil von Behring (German) Medicine
Jacobus Henricus van 't Hoff (Dutch) Chemistry
Henry Dunant (Switzerland) Peace

The youngest Nobel laureates in various fields :

Name of the recipient Field Year Contemporary age
Malala Yousafzai (Pakistan) Peace 2014 17
Lawrence Bragg (Australia) Physics 1915 25
Frederick Banting (Canada) Medicine 1923 32
Frédéric Joliot-Curie (France) Chemistry 1935 35
Rudyard Kipling (U.K) Literature 1907 41
Esther Duflo (France) Economy 2019 46

Veteran Nobel laureates in various fields :

Name of the recipient Field Year Contemporary age
Arthur Ashkin (USA) Physics 2018 96
Leonid Hurwicz (USA) Economy 2007 90
Doris Lessing (Iran) Literature 2007 88
John B. Goodenough (Germany) Chemistry 2019 97
Charles Brenton Huggins (USA) Medicine 1966 87
Joseph Rotblat (Poland) Peace 1995 87

Number of Nobel laureates from 1901-2021 :

Nobel Prize Total Prize Total Recipients Single Recipient Joint Recipient Trio Recipient
Physics 115 219 47 32 36
Chemistry 113 188 63 25 25
Medicine 112 224 39 34 39
Literature 114 118 110 4 -
Peace 102 109 + 28 69 31 2
Economy 53 89 25 20 8
Total 609 975 353 146 110

In all those years the Nobel Prize has not been awarded :

Nobel Prize Years not Awarded
Physics 1916, 1931, 1934, 1940, 1941, 1942
Chemistry 1916, 1917, 1919, 1924, 1933, 1940, 1941, 1942
Medicine 1915, 1916, 1917, 1918, 1921, 1925, 1940, 1941, 1942
Literature 1914, 1918, 1935, 1940, 1941, 1942, 1943
Peace 1914, 1915, 1916, 1918, 1923, 1924, 1928, 1932, 1939, 1940, 1941, 1942, 1943, 1948, 1955, 1956, 1966, 1967, 1972

India won the Nobel Prize

First Indian Nobel laureate: Rabindranath Tagore won the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1913 for his English translation of the book "Gitanjali".

First Indian woman Nobel laureate: Mother Teresa won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1989 (civic sources).

List of Indian Nobel Laureates :

SL. NO. Nobel laureate Field Year
1. Rabindranath Tagore Literature 1913
2. C. V. Raman Physics 1930
3. Har Gobind Khorana Medicine 1968
4. Mother Teresa (civic sources) Peace 1979
5. Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar Physics 1983
6. Amartya Sen Economy 1998
7. Rajendra K. Pachauri Peace 2007
8. Venki Ramakrishnan Chemistry 2009
9. Kailash Satyarthi Peace 2014
10. Abhijit Banerjee Economy 2019
Nobel laureates are also closely associated with India
11. Ronald Ross Medicine 1902
12. Rudyard Kipling Literature 1907
13. V.S. Naipaul Literature 2001

Nobel Prize 2021

Nobel in Medicine:
◾ David Julius (USA)
◾ Ardem Patapoutian (USA)

On October 4, the names of the first Nobel laureates of this year were announced. David Julius and Ardem Patapoutian, two researchers from the University of California, were awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. David Julius, a researcher on molecular mechanisms, explains how cold, hot touch and sensation are able to send signals to the nerves in the human body. He used a compound obtained from raw chilli to find out the reason. The name of the compound with a very pungent odor is 'Capsaicin'. When we touch this compound, we feel intense irritation on the skin. It was through this compound that Julius first learned how our nervous sensors respond to different individuals, objects and environments and also understand temperature variations. And Patapotian, a 54-year-old professor at the University of California, Los Angeles, was the first to demonstrate how external perceptions can be perceived, their growth-diminishing can be felt in our skin and nerves in various organs. Using a few human cells that can perceive pressure and its variations, Patapotchian detected a number of sensors in our nerves, any external pressure and the odor of its permeability that immediately reaches the nose. These two discoveries unraveled the complex mystery of our understanding of any other person, object, and environment. Our nervous system showed us the way to know and understand the environment.

Nobel in Literature:
◾ Abdulrazak Gurnah (Tanzania)

Abdul Razzaq Gurnah won the 2021 Nobel Prize in Literature. The award was given to a 63-year-old Tanzanian writer. For his uncompromising struggle against the intrusion of colonialism and for boldly raising the voice of the refugee people across the culture and continent. Abdul Razzaq was born in Zanzibar, East Africa, in 1946. He arrived in England as a refugee in the 1970s. Zanzibar was liberated from British colonial rule in 1973, but at that time the country began to witness atrocities and genocide against Arab descent. When Abdul Razzaq and his family were attacked, they had to flee the country. He could not return to his homeland before 1984. The pain of this uprising forced him to look at post-colonialism. Her most famous novels are Memory of Departure (198), Peligrims (198), Paradise (1994), Admiring License (1997), and By the Sea (2001). , Afterlives (2020). His Nobel Prize turned the world's attention to this particular genre of literature.

Nobel in Peace:
◾ Dmitry Muratov (Russia)
◾ Maria Ressa (USA) (Phillippines by birth)

The Nobel Peace Prize has been awarded to two pioneering journalists who have fought for freedom of expression and the full freedom of the media. Another winner is Maria Ressa, a female journalist from the Philippines. Maria founded a digital media platform called Radapler in 2012. Which relies heavily on investigative journalism. Another prominent Russian journalist is Dmitry Muratov, editor-in-chief of the Russian newspaper Novaya Gazette. The Nobel Peace Prize was announced on Friday by the Nobel Peace Prize winners in recognition of their lifelong commitment to freedom of expression. The Nobel Committee said: "The independent, impartial and factual journalism of these two men has always been active in exposing the abuse of power, corruption, lies and warlords. They have worked without any hesitation; Continuing. World brotherhood is impossible without freedom of expression and full freedom of the press. It is not possible to disarm and build a better world. So by honoring these two, the Nobel Committee honored Alfred Nobel's last will and testament.

Nobel in Economy:
◾ David Card (Canada)
◾ Joshua Angrist (USA)
◾ Guido Imbens (Netherlands)

In 2021, three economists together received the Alfred Nobel Memorial Prize for their contributions to economics. They are David Card, Joshua de Angrist and Guido W. Imbens, respectively. David Card is a labor economist. He is a professor of economics at the American University of California, Berkeley. Joshua Angrist is a professor of economics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in the United States. Guido Wilhelmus Imbens is Dutch by birth. He is the current editor of the American peer-reviewed economics magazine, Econometrics. According to the Swedish Academy, David Card was awarded the Nobel Prize for his experiential contributions to labor economics, and the other two economists were awarded the Nobel Prize for their systematic contributions to the analysis of casual relations in the causal relationship.

Nobel in Chemistry:
◾ Benjamin List (Germany)
◾ David MacMillan (UK)

In many cases such a situation arises during the production of organic compounds, when it is seen that two forms of the same compound have been formed i.e. mirror image. The two forms of that compound cannot do the same thing. For example, there is an organic compound called limonene which smells like an orange and its mirror image smells like a lemon. That is, even if the compounds are the same, the chemical properties also become different due to slight differences in structure. Such compounds are called asymmetric compounds, which are not equal. For a long time it was not known how to easily separate these two mirror images. That work was done in two separate labs by Benjamin List of Germany and David Macmillan of Scotland.
The first researched at the Max Planck Institute, the second at Princeton University in the United States. They invented a new type of catalyst by the year 2000. Called asymmetric organocatalyst. The name comes from the fact that asymmetry helps to create organic compounds. These are organic compounds that are needed to make various life-giving medicines.

Nobel in Physics:
◾ Giorgio Parisi (Italy)
◾ Klaus Hasselmann (Germany)
◾ Syukuro Manabe (USA) (Japan by birth)

It is relatively easy to bring all the events in the universe that follow a certain ‘pattern’ under calculation. But what can be done about events that have no ‘pattern’, called ‘caotic’ or ‘random’? The greatest examples of random or kayotic phenomena are weather and climate, and this time three people were awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics for showing the way to the almost perfect prediction of all their irregularities. Citizens of three countries were awarded. Syukuro Manabe, a professor at Princeton University in the United States, Klaus Hasselman, a professor at the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology in Germany, and Giorgio Parisi, a professor at the University of Sapienza in Rome, Italy.
In the sixties Manabe's mathematical models were the first to show how the surface temperature rises as the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere increases. If solar radiation with a capacity of 342 watts falls on an area of one square meter of the earth in one hour, it absorbs 235 watts of the earth's surface, and the remaining 107 watts of radiation is sent back into space by the earth's atmosphere. As a result, the upper layers of the atmosphere do not get as hot as the earth's surface. Manabe was the first to show that this variation has a great deal to do with the circulation of the atmosphere. In a study 10 years after Manabe's work, Haselman linked weather and climate. Haselman also explained in his mathematical model the reasons why the climate mind can fall in advance even if the weather is very whimsical.
Giorgio Parisi has given an account of how deviations from the atomic phase are associated with the planet's massive physical system disorder.

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